Impact Of Rotavirus Vaccination - Essay by Seldridge



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Impact Of Rotavirus Vaccination Essay

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Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis in young children and has a severe clinical impact (Lambert et al. 2009, p. 157 & Newall et al. 2007, p. 8851). It is a significant cause of early childhood mortality (in developing countries) and morbidity (in developed countries) (Galati et al. 2006, p. 416). World-wide nearly every child will be infected before the age of 5 years (Davison et al. 2007, p. 564).

The peak of rotavirus disease occurs between 6 and 24 months of age, when children are most likely to become dehydrated and require hospital admission (Davidson et al 2007, p. 564). Rotavirus infections are often more severe than other causes of diarrhoea (National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) 2008, p. 265), with the spectrum of illness ranging from asymptomatic to mild infection with watery diarrhoea, to severe dehydrating diarrhoea, vomiting, fever, electrolyte imbalance, shock and even death (Macartney & Burgess 2009, p. 131). Illness can begin abruptly, vomiting often precedes diarrhoea, and up to one-third of children will experience temperatures of > 39°C (NHMRC 2008, p. 265).

Since the introduction of a nationally funded rotavirus immunisation program in Australia, there has been a substantial reduction in rotavirus hospitalisations in children of all ages and reduced nosocomial infections (Macartney et al. 2011, p. 266). Two oral live attenuated rotavirus vaccines were licensed for use in Australia in 2006 and added to the National Immunisation Program from 1 July 2007 (Davidson et al. 2007, p. 564 & Newall 2007, p. 8851). Both vaccines (Rotarix and Rota Teq) have been extensively evaluated in large randomised trials and shown to be safe and highly effective (Davidson et al. 2007, p. 564). Due to geographical divide, approximately half the birth cohort in Australia receives Rotarix and half receives Rota Teq (Macartney & Burgess 2009, p. 131). Rotarix vaccine is used in Tasmania and is recommended as a 2-dose...

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