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The Early Industrial Revolution, 1760–1851
After studying this chapter students should be able to:
1. Understand the causes of the Industrial Revolution in England, Europe, and the United States.
2. Describe the technological innovations that spurred industrialization.
3. Describe the social, economic, and environmental impact of the Industrial Revolution and make connections between the impact of the Industrial Revolution and the ideological and political responses.
4. Understand the relationship between the industrialized world and the nonindustrialized world as demonstrated in the cases of Russia, Egypt, and India.
I. Causes of the Industrial Revolution
A. Population Growth
1. In the eighteenth century, more reliable food supplies, earlier marriage, high birthrates, and more widespread resistance to disease contributed to significant population growth in Europe. England and Wales experienced particularly rapid population growth.
2. Rapid population growth meant that children accounted for a relatively high proportion of the total population. Population growth also contributed to migration of people from the countryside to the cities, from Ireland to England, and from Europe to the Americas.
B. The Agricultural Revolution
1. The agricultural revolution began long before the eighteenth century. New food crops, many of them from the Americas, and new forage crops produced more food per acre and allowed farmers to raise more cattle for meat and milk.
2. Only wealthy landowners could afford to invest in new crops and new farming methods. Rich landowners fenced off (enclosed) their own land and common land to apply new scientific farming methods; as they did so, they forced their former tenants to become sharecroppers or landless laborers, or to migrate to the cities.
C. Trade and Inventiveness
1. In most of Europe, increasing demand for...