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) The Behaviourist Approach
Behaviorist's suggest we learn our behaviour through classical and operant conditioning.
Classical conditioning was developed by a russian physicologist called Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936).He was investigating his dogs digestive systems. He attached the dogs to a harness and attached the dogs stomach and mouths to measure the rate os salivation. Pavlov noticed that the dogs were salvating when the labortory assistant took a bowl of food into the room before the dogs even tasted the food. Pavlov realised the dog was salvating because it had learned to associate the assistant with food. Food led to the response of salvation, he called this an unconditional response (not learned) . Pavlov then began to ring a bell as presenting the food. The dog then began to salvate when only the bell was rung this is called an unconditional stimulus. As food atomatically leads to the response of salivation he called this conditioned response.
Watson and Raynor 1920
Watson and Raynor wanted to demonstrate that emotiond could be classically conditioned in the same way any response it conditioned.They demonstrated on little albert. Albert is a 11 month old boy, Watson tested his responses to various stimulus objects including blocks,cotton, furry material and a white rat. Watson and Raynor associated the white rat with the noise of a metal gong, when Albert went to and feel the rat they would hit the gong behind him. This made Albert cry. Everytime he reached out to the rat they sruck the metal gong. Watson and Raynor repeated this three times and did the same a week later. Everytime they showed albert the rat he began to cry, this is called conditioned emotional response. Watson and Raynor returned a week later and found that when albert seen anything white and furry he provoked a fear. This is called generalisation. Albert learned to generalise his fear of the white rat to other simular objects.