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TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT
The Origins of TQM TQM was first introduced by Feigenbaum in 1957, but more recently various quality Gurus have enhanced and developed the notion. It is important to understand the contributions made by these quality gurus to help understand the origins. Armand FEIGENBAUM - was a doctor in the Massachusetts Institute of technology in the 1950’s and he defined TQM as: ‘An effective system for integrating the quality development, quality maintenance and quality improvement efforts of the various groups in an organisation so as to enable production and service at the most economical levels which allow for full customer satisfaction’. W.E.DEMING - asserted that quality starts with top management and is a strategic activity. Deming’s philosophy is that quality and productivity increase as process variability decreases (a decrease in the unpredictable). In his 14 Points for quality improvement he emphasised the need for statistical control methods, education, openness, purposeful improvement and participation: Create constancy of purpose Adopt new philosophy Cease dependence on inspection End awarding business on price Improve constantly the system of production and service Institute training on the job Institute leadership Drive out fear Break down barriers between departments Eliminate slogans and exhortations Eliminate quotas or work standards Give people pride in their job Institute education and self-improvement programme Put everyone to work to accomplish it.
3. J.M.JURAN - tried to get organisations to move away from the traditional manufacturing-based view of quality ‘as conformance to specification’ to a more usedbased approach, for which he created the phrase ‘Fitness for Use’. He pointed out that a dangerous product could conform to specification but would not be fit for use. Juran was concerned with management activities and the responsibility for quality, but was also concerned about the impact of individual workers and involved...